Gemological Institute of America, Santa Monica, California
George R. Rossman
California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California
The 1980s witnessed great development in the application of new technologies to gemology. These technologies provided new or better ways to grow synthetic gem materials and to treat natural ones. They also permitted numerous breakthroughs in gem identification, in areas where classical gemological methods were no longer sufficient to make a positive identification. In particular, various types of spectroscopy proved to be of important practical value, for example, infrared absorption, X-ray fluorescence, Raman scattering, and cathodoluminescence.
Fritsch E, Rossman GR (1990) Gems and Gemology 26, 64-75.