New technologies of the 1980s: their impact in gemology

Emmanuel Fritsch

Gemological Institute of America, Santa Monica, California

George R. Rossman

California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California


The 1980s witnessed great development in the application of new technologies to gemology. These technologies provided new or better ways to grow synthetic gem materials and to treat natural ones. They also permitted numerous breakthroughs in gem identification, in areas where classical gemological methods were no longer sufficient to make a positive identification. In particular, various types of spectroscopy proved to be of important practical value, for example, infrared absorption, X-ray fluorescence, Raman scattering, and cathodoluminescence.

Fritsch E, Rossman GR (1990) Gems and Gemology 26, 64-75.