Frank C. HAWTHORNE, Lee A. GROAT, Mati RAUDSEPP,
Neil A. BALL, Mitsuyoshi KIMATA,
Felix D. SPIKE, Robert GABA, Norman M. HALDEN
Department of Geological Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2, Canada
Gregory R. LUMPKIN, Rodney C. EWING
Department of Geology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131, U.S.A.
Robert B. GREEGOR, F. W. LYTLE
The Boeing Company, Seattle, Washington 98124, U.S.A.
T. Scott ERCIT
Division of Mineral Sciences, National Museum of Natural Sciences, Ottawa, Ontario Kl A 0M8, Canada
George R. ROSSMAN
Division of Geological Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, U.S.A.
Frederick J. WICKS, Robert A. RAMIK
Department of Mineralogy, Royal Ontario Museum, 100 Queen's Park, Toronto, Ontario M5S 2C6, Canada
Barbara L. SHERRIFF, Michael E. FLEET
Department of Geology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B7, Canada
Department of Geological Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2B4, Canada
Four representative samples were selected for further work. The crystal structures were refined using MoKa X-ray single-crystal diffraction data. The crystals were then annealed at 1090°C under Ar and the intensity data were again measured. For small degrees of a-decay damage, the structure seems to be completely restored on annealing; this is not the case for titanite with the largest amount of a-decay damage. Polarized single-crystal IR spectra of undamaged titanite show a single sharp (OH) stretching band at ~3490 cm-1 with a little fine structure reflecting local cation disorder around the OH. With increasing alpha-decay damage, the sharpness of the absorption band decreases and a wide wing appears on the low-energy side of the sharp (OH) band. Mossbauer spectroscopy shows only Fe3+ to be present in undamaged titanite; as a-decay damage increases, the amount of Fe2+ increases, suggesting that radioactive decay causes reduction as well as atomic displace ment. Fe2+ is easily oxidized on heating. The 29Si MAS-NMR peak width is strongly correlated with increasing radiation damage and increasing Fe content, and no signal was observed from the most damaged titanite. With increasing a-decay damage, single-crystal electron diffraction patterns develop diffuse halos indicative of a mean atomic spacing of 3.6 Å. In bright field, undamaged material shows continuous lattice fringes. Small amounts of damage are characterized by mottled diffraction contrast superimposed on largely con tinuous lattice fringes. The most damaged titanite shows mottled diffraction contrast with coexisting crystalline and aperiodic domains produced by overlapping alpha-recoil tracks, cor responding to damage on the order of 30 - 50% of that required to render the structure fully aperiodic. Ti XANES spectra show intensification of the principal pre-edge feature (1s ® 3d transition) with increasing damage, indicative of increasing local asymmetry around the Ti position. Loss of resolution in the EXAFS spectra also indicates increasing disorder around Ti with increasing damage. There is no sign of any Ti in even the most damaged samples, although it was detected in a glass of titanite composition. The meta mictization process begins by the formation of isolated alpha-recoil and alpha-particle tracks. With increasing dose, the a-tracks begin to overlap, producing aperiodic domains; in the most damaged titanite examined, there were approximately equal amounts of coexisting crystalline and aperiodic material. At this stage, the crystalline domains still retain their original orientation, except where affected by low-temperature annealing. As undamaged titanite does not (usually) contain significant Fe2+, it seems that the damage process is accompanied by reduction of Fe3+ ® Fe2+, which resides in the aperiodic domains. These domains incorporate much more hydrogen (as OH) than is contained in crystalline titanite, presumably a result of postdamage diffusion of H into the structure.
All information is consistent with the Ewing model for metamict materials, an aperiodic random network structure; HRTEM images show patterns of random contrast consistent with the random network model, with no evidence to support any microcrystalline model of the metamict state. High-temperature annealing only partly restores the structure, the apparent degree of recovery being dependent on the coherence length of the experimental technique used to characterize the material. The degree of recovery is also dependent on the amount and pattern of damage. We suggest that the original structure is recovered when the ratio of surface area to volume for the damaged material is high, and the interface can exert a strong memory effect on the amorphous material; when large equant aperiodic domains form, they are annealed to a more defect-free and relatively stable aperiodic network structure.