Low Voltage FESEM of Geological Materials


Ma Chi and George R. Rossman

Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences

California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, USA 91125-2500




            Low voltage field emission SEM (i.e., operated at several hundred volts to 5 kV), offering advantages in surface imaging due to reduced beam penetration, was found to be particularly useful in the investigation of uncoated, fine, geological materials down to the nano-scale. Four examples to highlight projects conducted in our FESEM facility are presented.