Olivine Group Visible Spectra (generally 350 - 2000 nm)

Olivine derives its color primarily from Fe2+ content. The basic color is modified by minor amounts of Fe3+, Ti4+, and Ni2+.  It is green with lower contents of Fe2+ but becomes brown at high iron contents . 

Synthetic olivines with different transition metal ions

Orientation convention relating the cyrstallographic axes to the directions of the optical absorption spectra:  10 Ångstrom axis = alpha;  6 Ångstrom axis = beta;  4.7 Ångstrom axis = gamma.  Spectra at liquid nitrogen temperature (78 K) generally show better resolution of many of the spectroscopic features.

Synthetic olivines doped with cobalt.

Synthetic olivines doped with nickel.

 Two synthetic olivines doped with chromium. Nominally they contain Cr3+ but the spectra suggest that multiple oxidations states are present.

High Pressure phases in the (Mg,Fe)2SiO4 family

Link to an extensive collection of references to mostly color and visible spectroscopy of olivines

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